CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR A SPORTS COMPLEX
Construction and the built Environment
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR A SPORTS COMPLEX
Construction is a fast-growing industry and there is always something spectacular coming with regard to construction . Developed continents/countries have complex structures with all kinds of shapes one can think of. For any form of structure to withstand the tests of time, the materials to be used must be carefully selected by a team of professionals in that field depending on the need of the structure. Different materials portray different properties and react when subjected to various conditions or chemicals . The choice of materials is also influenced by its availability, economics of the proposed development, the durability of the material and the design life of the desired structure.
In this particular assignment, we are required to look into various construction materials and their behaviour towards the properties exposed to at any point. There is also the need to pose a comparison between materials and pick the most favourable one for the particular case. Based on their availability as well, we shall assess the affordability and durability .
A sports complex with a complicated shape, which is not definite, requires careful consideration of the materials, because of fabrication, ease of construction and malleability or ductility. Materials for various parts must conform to standards and not compromise on the safety of end-users  There is an option of taking precast materials or just cast in situ materials to suit their needs and also for materials like concrete can easily take preferred shape if cast in situ. Some of the commonly used materials are steel, concrete, timber, glass, ceramics, glass-reinforced plastic, earthen soil, cement, sand and ballast .
Sand, Cement, Ballast and Concrete
Sand from parts of the world is obtained from the rivers and thus easily obtained the name river sand quite easily. It is largely classified as fine aggregates in construction mainly because it has particle size distribution from (3mm – 600µm) based on the standard ASTM sieve sizes. This particular material is essential in the construction and is widely used to prepare concrete mixes of various classes . Public recreational facilities need to be protected against them. Ballast is largely classified as coarse aggregates (5mm – 40mm), which are essential for construction and would be highly recommended for the sports complex, especially when mixing concrete .
Cement, on the other hand, is a product that is a result of clinker limestone mixing. These products are crushed to very smooth and very fine particles and mixed with the clinker varying in proportions to produce cement of varying strengths . Cement is essential in the sports complex and the right grade of cement needs to be carefully looked into considering the grade of concrete desired and the affordability and availability of the cement too . For a sports complex areas that may have an indoor swimming pool or even outdoors and all bathrooms and toilets, it is necessary to have waterproof cement that does not allow for leakage of water into the inner structures and hence creating a weak point .
Furthermore, concrete possesses very good compressive strength qualities but has poor tensile strength. With this in mind for parts such as columns which require high compression strengths, then mass concrete can work on its own quite well (will be discussed further) . For parts that need high tensile strength it is recommended that the mass concrete be reinforced with tensioned steel bars. Concrete comes in various classes such as 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40. These can, however, be increased and changed as well to suit the desired case they are not cast on stone, the varying classes of concrete are like this because of the change in the individual components that make up concrete(sand, ballast, cement, adhesives) .
GLASS/ GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS/ TIMBER / CERAMICS
In most complex structures, there is a desire to use lightweight construction materials that do not compromise on the structural integrity of the building. That is why glass or glass reinforced plastics are used widely to act as external walls and partitions walls in general. They go a long way in reducing the weight and still serve the purpose without compromising on the safety of the end-use .
Timber can also be used to make partition walls or when properly treated is also used for columns and beams . Ceramic tiles are also recommended for use in ‘wet areas’ where the surface would be in contact with water a lot of the time. This help because they have a smooth waterproof surface that does that not allow water to penetrate through . The sports complex will have many bathrooms to allow for the sportsmen and women to refresh and change.
The sports complex, depending on the desired use of a part/room and the position of a part, forms the basic baseline for the evaluation of what material is to be used. I would also recommend that a structures engineer assess and designs to provide for the amount of steel, concrete in mass and its components . The soil should also be studied carefully, and all tests including the Mass Dry Density (MDD), California Bearing Ratio (CBR) be carried out to determine whether the soils for the place that it is to be put up are suitable to bear the pressure that will come with the erection of this complex structure .
The following are some of the influential parameters in the selection of materials, namely: stress, strain, young’s modulus, tension and compression.
Stress, strain and young’s modulus
Strain in materials is also known as the change in elongation/length in relation to its original length. Stress then is defined as the force that the instrument subjected to in relation to the area .
Thus stress is given by
σ = Fn / A
σ = normal stress (Pa (N/m2), psi (lbf/in2))
Fn = normal force acting perpendicular to the area (N, lbf)
A = area (m2, in2)
• a kip is an imperial unit of force – it equals 1000 lbf (pounds-force)
• 1 kip = 4448.2216 Newtons (N) = 4.4482216 kilo Newtons (kN)
On the other hand, Young’s modulus = stress/strain
The formulation were utilized in filling the table.
Stress could be a result of a compression force that makes the object shorter or due to a tension force that makes the object longer. Young’s modulus is, however, the ration between strain and stress and it has no units, young’s modulus of any object can be obtained by dividing (stress/strain) . Following a test carried out previously on a specimen with a tension force, the results shall be tabulated and a graph generated.
Stress vs Strain Curve for the Experiment
Values of Young’s Modulus of Elasticity based on the results is 8406286.295. The value of Stress at the limit of proportionality is 488333.333. On the other hand the value of strain at the limit of proportionality is 0.280087, Ultimate tensile strength is 1594742.833. The percentage elongation -0.280087 %. The aspect is linked to the fact it is the highest strain from 0.Grade 5.74 the tested steel is more likely to be; S235 or S27. The aspect is linked to the fact that it has the highest strength.
The drop in force values in Table 1 after reaching the value 117.2 kN is lined to the fact that the material had reached its breaking point and could not withhold more stress, hence a drop in the force applied.
The yield plateau of the material happens when the material has started yielding to the tension force and hence has become weak within its structure. At this point, the material cannot regain its normal shape even though the direct force was to be withdrawn . Strain hardening (plastic behaviour) occurs when their material starts to show some plastic properties that with an increase in the intensity of force applied to the specimen, then it could break at any point. Moreover, it is at the breaking point that we call it necking. When the graph starts to drop all over a sudden that is the point where the specimen breaks and even with an increase in force applied there is no increase in impact . Figure 1 is a representation of the explanation above.
Figure 1: Relationship between Stress and Strain
Extension (mm) Force (KN) Length (mm) Area (M²) Strain Stress(KN/M²) Young’s Modulus
0 0 115 0.00024 0 0 0
0.03 12.9 115 0.00024 0.000261 53750 206041666.7
0.05 21.4 115 0.00024 0.000435 89166.66667 205083333.3
0.07 31.1 115 0.00024 0.000609 129583.3333 212886904.8
0.09 39.7 115 0.00024 0.000783 165416.6667 211365740.7
0.13 57.3 115 0.00024 0.00113 238750 211201923.1
0.15 66.5 115 0.00024 0.001304 277083.3333 212430555.6
0.17 74.4 115 0.00024 0.001478 310000 209705882.4
0.26 74.5 115 0.00024 0.002261 310416.6667 137299679.5
0.49 74.5 115 0.00024 0.004261 310416.6667 72852891.16
0.95 74.4 115 0.00024 0.008261 310000 37526315.79
1.44 74.6 115 0.00024 0.012522 310833.3333 24823495.37
1.87 74.3 115 0.00024 0.016261 309583.3333 19038547.24
2.15 74.4 115 0.00024 0.018696 310000 16581395.35
2.33 81 115 0.00024 0.020261 337500 16657725.32
3.47 90.1 115 0.00024 0.030174 375416.6667 12441762.73
5.74 100.7 115 0.00024 0.049913 419583.3333 8406286.295
6.93 104 115 0.00024 0.060261 433333.3333 7190957.191
9.2 108.9 115 0.00024 0.08 453750 5671875
12.67 113.6 115 0.00024 0.110174 473333.3333 4296237.832
16.15 115.9 115 0.00024 0.140435 482916.6667 3438725.49
23.05 117.2 115 0.00024 0.200435 488333.3333 2436370.21
27.63 116.4 115 0.00024 0.240261 485000 2018639.16
29.92 113.6 115 0.00024 0.260174 473333.3333 1819295.9
32.21 107.2 115 0.00024 0.280087 446666.6667 1594742.833
Figure 2: Results from Calculations
Figure 3: Young’s Modulus; stress and strain
Materials suitable for the construction of a swimming pool within the sports complex has to be waterproof and also be in a position to bear water pressure. For a swimming pool, let us all bear in mind that water has a lot of pressure and can cause havoc if it is not well taken care of. Therefore, concrete that is reinforced with steel bars is required to constitute the walls and floor of the pool. The finishing would recommend ceramic tiles over a floor screen even though well-polished and buffed; this is because of the ease of cleaning of the pool and to avoid the underlying layers from getting wet . Granite floors are sometimes adopted but on a rare basis. Kitchen floors are should also be marred with floor ceramic tiles. In some instances, terrazzo is also used but it has a demerit of wearing out fast after a period of cleaning. Kitchen cabinets should be of wood be it softwood, hardwood or wood plastic composite depending on the clients preference. In some instances there are glass shower cubicles and here only the floor is of tiles that are a little rough to avoid falling when it gets soapy.
Showers are more or less built with the same concept as swimming pools and their ceilings can be of chipboards or a flat slab roofing or even the plastic ceilings. Lighting in a shower should be protected to avoid any cases of being in contact with water. Squash rooms are rooms that need to have smooth floors and long walls marked for the game’s score lines. Such a ceiling is suitable if it is of chipboard, they provide for easier absorption of sweat and humid moisture. The squash room with a combination of ceramic floor tiles, and precast wall parts plus a chipboard ceiling would go a long way .
As mentioned earlier, the complex sports structure will constitute various parts such as beams, columns, floor slabs, column bases, and ties. The important thing to be taken into account first before anything is that the parts will be subjected to different loads, and they will exhibit different behaviours after that, they will thus require different types of materials to withstand the weight and pressure experienced .
Concrete as earlier on mentioned is a material that has very good characteristics in terms of bearing compression force. Columns that are parts subjected to axial loads and are prone to buckling are, therefore, required to be made of concrete that is reinforced with steel that will help tackle the buckling effect. Concrete reinforced with a steel bar of a minimum area as per the British standard 8110:1999 or whatever the quality control . The concrete, however, varies in classes and hence makes all the difference. The higher the class of concert the stronger it is. Concrete is also suitable for use in beams and slabs and it helps in reducing the general cost of the structure because its cost of production is much cheaper to the cost of reinforcing steel if used in excess. In beams and slabs in cases where there is a need to avert deflection, an increase in depth leads to an increase in the volume of concrete . In other words when beams are loaded they tend to occupy a larger area hence an increase in volume. As indicated in the diagram above the volume covered increase with force. Columns because of their expected behaviour change it will experience concrete is the most suitable material for use.
Steel, on the other hand, is also a good construction material that has more tension force adherence than concrete . Columns that can also be well painted to avoid rusting to give steel a longer life are advising for use. Based on the shape of the structure in question, then there will be many conjoined beams, which are better erected using steel because even fabrication and erection processes are easier. Steel, however, has a limitation of the fact that when exposed, it wears fast, thus reducing its life span . Ties are also like beams they portray the same behaviours as beam thus they are treated the same way and the material choice is like that of beams.
In conclusion, it is recommendable that the structure under construction should utilize a blend of different materials. The main materials for the structure should be steel and concrete. The reason for choosing the two materials is that none richly satisfies all the requirements. Each of the materials have a weakness and a strength. And, the materials complement each other in that one material’s strength is another material’s weakness. Therefore, a blend between the two can bring out a good combination hence a good structure.
 M., Bauer, P. et al., Green Building: Guidebook for Sustainable Architecture. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.
 S.H. Sameh, “Promoting earth architecture as a sustainable construction technique in Egypt.” Journal of cleaner production, vol. 65, pp. 362-373, 2014
 A. Garcia, et al. “Eco-architecture and sustainable mobility: An integrated approach in Ladispoli town.” WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, vol. 142, pp.59-68, 2014.
 S. Leydecker. Nano Materials: In Architecture, Interior Architecture and Design. Walter de Gruyter, 2008.
 K.M. Hays. Constructing a New Agenda: Architectural Theory 1993-2009. Chronicle Books, 2012
 D. Kendall. “Building the Future with FRP Composites.” Reinforced Plastics, vol. 51, no. 5, pp.26-33, 2007.
 L.R. Salome, et al., “‘We Are as Green as Possible’: Environmental Responsibility in Commercial Artificial Settings for Lifestyle Sports.” Leisure Studies, vol. 32, no. 2, pp.173-190, 2013.
 J. Rydz, et al.,. “Polyester-Based (Bio) Degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development.” International journal of molecular sciences, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.564-596, 2015.